## Free Parentheses

Author: Felix Halim

We should have noticed the following property. If a bracket begins with a positive sign, then nothing will change. If a bracket begins with a negative sign, then all operators within the bracket will be inverted (plus become minus, and vice versa). It means that only brackets with negative sign could change the value of the expression.

```1 - (2 - 3 + 4)   = 1 - 2 + 3 - 4
1 + (2 - 3 + 4)   = 1 + 2 - 3 + 4
1 + (2 - (3 + 4)) = 1 + 2 - 3 - 4```

Any expression with brackets has an equivalent expression that use no bracket. So, we can simulate the process of evaluating the expression in the following way. Start from the left most operand, move to the right and process each operator. At any operator in the expression, we always have three options:
– keep going, evaluate the value normally.
– put an open bracket, only if the operator is a negative sign (minus).
– put a close bracket, only if we have at least one open bracket before the operator.

To do this, I used a recursive structure with three arguments: f(x, p, curr); where x is the current index of operators, p is the number of open brackets before x, and curr is the evaluated value of all numbers before x.

To evaluate the current operator in any position (to find out whether it should be a plus or a minus), we just need to count how many open brackets are there before that operator. Remember, we only put open brackets behind negative signs. If the number of open bracket is odd, then invert the current operator, otherwise don’t change anything.

If we reach the end of the expression, then mark the value (curr) as visited. It means that there is a valid expression which evaluated to the value. Note that the value could be anywhere between -3000 and 3000. As we do the simulation, we might encounter repeating state. To prevent this, just mark the states that have been visited.

The overall time-complexity of this process is O(N3 . L) where N <= 30, and L <= 100.

In this problem, top-down/recursive does run faster than plain bottom-up approach. I have observed the behaviour of the recursive structure with many possible cases, and I never found any case which made the memo-table filled by more than 20%. Kurniady once wrote a plain bottom-up approach and failed the time-limit (it need more than 10s to process all the cases, while mine and Felix’s solution need no more than 1s). Somehow, he was able to prune the search process in his bottom-up solution, and it made his solution became as fast as mine.

This problem was solved by 3 teams: Seed (112), Joy (133) and Far (298).

### 35 Responses to “ACM-ICPC 2008 Jakarta – Problem Set & Analysis”

1. Hi, shouldn’t it be “Rabin-Karp” instead of “Booyer-Moore”?

2. ooops, you’re right 😀 , thanks!

3. Hi, I’m a member of team Seed.
It’s a great problemset, and it’s really responsible for the author team to write such detailed solutions after the contest.

Here’s some of our experience:
1. We use segment tree to solve E 🙁
2. We solved I using DFS(4^n), only add a few pre-cut.

Would you mind if I ask for the testdata of the contest, so we could use it for practice, and I could test my program for D & H.
My email is: chy_charlie@hotmail.com

4. Oh, and also the time limit for each problem.
Thanks a lot.

5. @Cheng Yu:

1. Yeah, some other teams also used segment tree to solve E 😀
2. Hm, interesting 😕

Btw, I have sent an email for you 🙂 We will also upload the problemset and testdata to baylor’s archieve.

6. Don’t worry, I won’t paste the exact value of 3^^^^3 as I know it wouldn’t fit in here… instead I would like to paste the exact values of the so-called “? scrapers” from this site, which make those hyper-mod numbers above insignificant http://www.polytope.net/hedrondude/scrapers.htm

7. i’am trying to solve the problem I using brute force , but my answer still judge wrong answer.
is there any trick on the brute force one?
still curious ^^

8. @indra

9. @Indra Suryatama:
No, there isn’t any tricky case. It means your bruteforce solution was wrong 🙂

@Felix J:
Clearly he’s talking about problem “I”

10. Yap i’am thalkin about problem I….
hmm still curious….
is the judge test case can be downloaded? cause still curious in which test case my solution get wrong hehehe
maybe my brute force solution was wrong….
but until now i still dunno which test case hahah
because at that time i make several test case and it passed hehehhehehe ^^
maybe you can give me some advice heheh ^^

11. by the way …. you said
“New update. I have just tested the brute force solution and it did not pass the time-limit.”
so we cant solve problem I with brute force solution…?
hmmm hahah so i must moved on from BF solution tu DP solution ya… heheheh
tq

12. @Indra Suryatama:

Your bruteforce program failed on some cases. I suspect that your program didn’t properly check whether a combination/solution is possible to happen or not.

If you do plain 4^N brute force then you’ll surely get TLE 🙂

13. Hi Suhendry!
Great reviews for the problems! You mention in one of the comments that you’ll sen the dataset to the Baylor Archive. If you mean the CLI Live Archive, we didn’t recieved anything yet. We’ve already uploaded the problem descriptions, so having the datasets will be very very helpful for us.

Thanks!

14. Hi Carlos!

No wonder the problemset is still not available in Live Archieve, the email address was wrong…

15. Thanks to Carlos, now the problemset is available in CLI Live Archieve:

http://acmicpc-live-archive.uva.es/nuevoportal/region.php?r=as7&year=2008

enjoy it 🙂

16. Hi Suhendry! Could you please send the testcase to me for my practice these problems? I don’t know where the baylor’s archieve is…could you tell me? Thanks!
mail: f7495622@mail.ncku.edu.tw

17. Oh i means where can i find the testcase in the baylor’s archieve… i can’t find the correct link. Could you please tell me ??

18. Thanks a lot for this great and detailed review!

If only every regional had these type of reviews 🙁

Also I really loved the problem set and I can feel that it especially enriched my DP skills. Thanks to all problem setters.

19. hi 🙂

I’m Ivan from the team from Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. I was wondering if you can send the testdata to my email? I’d use it to analyze our solutions to the problems, and for our future training sessions as well.

My email is ivan_pisay07@yahoo.com.

And oh, your review of the problems is great! Thanks for this 🙂

20. So what’s the story behind problem I? 😀

21. Hi,

will you please send testdata to me for our training contests?

Thanks,

— Kamran

22. plz ,Explain 3rd test case according to your algorithm,
i,e min{ (ai-bi)mod 10,(bi-ai) mod 10} , then MST….

23. for problem A

plz ,Explain 3rd test case according to your algorithm,
i,e min{ (ai-bi)mod 10,(bi-ai) mod 10} , then MST….

24. The link for the CLI Live Archive is not working for me, can anyone update it?

25. @rizoan toufiq
First, compute the cost from each state to other state.

For example,
1234 to 5678 =
min((1-5+10) mod 10, (5-1+10) mod 10) +
min((2-6+10) mod 10, (6-2+10) mod 10) +
min((3-7+10) mod 10, (7-3+10) mod 10) +
min((4-8+10) mod 10, (8-4+10) mod 10) +
= 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 16

The matrix cost will be:
0 16 12
16 0 12
12 12 0

The MST for above graph is 24. Connect the MST with (0,0,0,0) and you will get 26.

26. @John Bull

The CLI Live Archive link is working…

27. You did a good job.

28. hi everyBody…

i have a problem about Palindrome number .
i want to find a Palindrome number By index of numbers ( numbers are subset of natural numbers = N )
like this :::

input | output
9 | 9
10 | 11
29 | 202
40 | 313
& so on…

i want an algorithm to find this

(someone said : e.g. : if input = 12 /// output => 12 + 21 = 33
or 64= > 64+46 = 110 go on = > 110+011 = 111 /// But not true for all numbers)

• //in c++
#include
#include
using namespace std;
int main()
{
char s[22],a[20],b[20];int i,j;
cin>>a;
for(i=0,j=strlen(a)-1;i<strlen(a);i++,j–)
b[j]=a[i];
for(i=0;i<strlen(a);i++)
s[i]=(a[i]-48)+(b[i]-48)+48;
for(i=0;i46 && s[i]<58)
cout<<s[i];
cout<<endl;
return 0;
}

29. mohammed just out of curiosity what do you need this algorithm?

30. I got TLE in ICPC team strategy, altough I’ve used DP bitmask. Can someone suggest me please..

31. Hi Suhendry, I praticed solving this contest some days ago and I used brute force for this problem (ICPC Team Strategy). I tried all the possibilities and I got AC in 2.6s. After that, I add only one line of code for checking some variables and then I submitted again and got AC in 0.104s. I’m really surprise! 🙂

32. HI!!
I have some problem with ICPC team strategy : (
I use DP + bitmask , run for all the state by 5*for,
and the time complexity is the same as yours , but still TLE : (
Is there any cut or tip ?
thanks.

33. Can you please email me the test data for the contest , we are a team from Egypt and we will use this data to prepare for the coming regional contest
here is my e-mail: kamokim2@gmail.com

Thanks

34. Could you mind if I you send me test data of the contest specially D and F , so my team could use it for practice.

E-mail : yasser.csd@gmail.com

Thanks